I go on Craigslist about once a year. Come to think about it, that is where we found our Toyota Highlander a couple years ago, now serving us well in Illinois when we go there. But in my annual perusal a couple weeks ago, an ad for a wide-angle lens caught my eye. It was for a 14mm F/2.8 Canon lens made by Rokinon - a Korean-made lens that has pretty good reviews on line. Even new they sell for about a third of a major-name brand, and the seller was taking a discount off the street price, so I couldn't say no!
It isn't like I don't have other wide-angle lenses, but this baby has less distortion and almost the same field of view of my 16mm fisheye, and is a full stop faster than my 10-22 zoom - very important for night-time shots, in particular the time-lapse shots I've been shooting lately. This week, with the University shut down, I picked up some extra shifts on Kitt Peak, and had a little time for some test shots after my duties there.
This time of year Orion rises early, but once clear of the horizon it is difficult to get into the field of view with a dome or other item of interest. But with the wide-angle, it is easy to do so, and with the fast aperture, 30 or 45 seconds at ISO 1600 records enough light to even get some shadow details in the near blackness, and expose short enough to not get too much star trailing.
The image at left here is off the west side of Kitt Peak showing the western sky. Visible in the 60 second exposure is the Summer Milky way to the right, and the glow of the Zodiacal light to the left. Besides the lights of Sells (the capital of the Tohono O'odham reservation), the faint light domes of distant cities can be seen. Just upper right of Sells is the US/Mexico border town of Lukeville/Sonoita. The brighter light domes of Why/Ajo is to the right. I've not identified the light domes into Mexico, but I'm amazed at how well the light domes show up from so far away given how clear the skies were... A couple nights later we had some thin clouds after our observing session and I took a few frames of them moving through the rising Big Dipper and Polaris (to left). This was only 30 second exposure...
Finally a daytime shot of the Visitor Center at the Observatory. Note how the straight edges of the building remain mostly straight, unlike what you would get in most ultrawides or fisheye lenses. I'm mostly happy with the lens - I need to do some tracked shots to test it's ultimate sharpness, but for the money seems to be a good value.
In what has become an annual holiday tradition for a bunch of our friends, this evening we made the trip up the Mount Lemmon Highway to again observe the winter solstice sunset alignment. The trip up was clouded out last weekend (plus, we had a holiday party to attend), so tonight was the last chance this season. It was a last minute decision to attend for me, plus Melinda had to work, so there was a rush to prepare a scope and camera. Five cars met at Tanque Verde and Mount Lemmon Highway at 4pm for the 20 minute drive up near milepost 9. I decided to again use the Celestron 5" telescope, which just about gives the perfect image scale. After careful focusing on the sun, it was about a half hour wait to sunset. Note that we had a good supply of sunspots this year. The image at left was taken at setup with the sun about 8 degrees above the horizon. Up is up in this image, so north would be to the 2 o'clock position.
Shown here are Susan and the Jims waiting for the sun to approach the horizon. Jim O'Connor had both a small scope with a white-light filter, and one with a Lunt H-alpha filter shooting video. Realize we're all parked next to a relatively busy highway, with lots of tourists driving cars and trucks covered with snow they are bringing down from the mountaintop. A few shouts, but on Christmas eve, no one stopped to see what we were doing this year.
Finally the sun dropped into our viewfinders and shutters started snapping. I pushed the start button on my timer, and after a quick check for the proper exposure, mostly I stood back and took a snap or two with an unfiltered telephoto lens on another camera. Before you knew it (always seems to happen faster than you think), the disk dropped below the Observatory and it was over. As soon as I stopped taking frames every 3 seconds and removed the filter for a few post-sunset shots, I could see the scope was a little out of focus, as well as suffering from shutter-shake. Unfortunately, after setting focus during setup, the temperature dropped enough to shrink the telescope tube and throw it out a little... But the experience of a mountain sunset in a perfectly clear sky among friends made the trip worthwhile, even with fuzzy pictures!
After packing up and heading down the hill, my friend Mike and I stopped at the Babad Do'ag overlook (Tohono O'Odham name - Frog Mountain, for the Catalinas) for what has almost become as popular to me as the sunset - watching the twilight fade as the lights of Tucson come up. I set up my camera and tripod again and exposed a few panorama mosaics, then focused on the silhouette of Kitt Peak and it's telescopes against the last of the twilight with foreground city lights. It is fun to locate the hot spots around the valley by their lights at night. Our downtown district doesn't have the skyline that many large cities have, but it was easily identified by it's proximal alignment from our observing spot with Kitt Peak. Hopping to the north from downtown the University and UMC could be located. Even darkened locations like A Mountain and Gates Pass could be spotted in the exposures that were up to 20 seconds. Finally it was time to head back to civilization - I had cats to feed, presents to wrap, and a cheesecake to bake as gifts to friends. It finally felt like a holiday!
Similar to the philosophical conundrum about falling trees in the woods making a sound, if no one observes something happen, did it? But in the 21st century of advanced technology, instant communications and cameras on every corner, it is difficult for anything to go undetected.
This last week something amazing happened, undetected from the earth. But with an armada of sun-observing spacecraft, Comet C/2011 W3 Lovejoy was observed to dive into the hellish temperatures of the sun, skim the surface and for the first time ever observed, survived to retreat to the frozen outer solar system.
The primary observing platform was SOHO - the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Originally designed for a 2-year service life, it was launched over 16 years ago. It observes the sun with a dozen instruments, including detailed observations of the surface in the extreme ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths, and the near-sun environment with coronographs. The coronographs show the outer atmosphere of the sun, storms of charged particles thrown out by active areas on the sun, and most importantly, the near-sun environment, including comets.
Now comets generally are their brightest near the sun, but it wasn't until SOHO's observing station was deployed just how many comets there were. It has found more than 2100 comets the last 16 years! It puts to shame the 20 or 30 found from the earth's surface. The majority of those found from SOHO are a special type called Kreutz sungrazers - from the deepest reaches of the solar system, they dive to within a few tens of thousands of miles of the sun's surface, most all vaporizing and not coming out. Interestingly, these sungrazers share a very similar orbit - they are all considered pieces of a much larger comet that broke up perhaps 8 or 9 hundred years ago.
On November 27th, Terri Lovejoy, observing in Australia, discover a smudge of a comet that was officially named for him on 2 December, the 16th anniversary of SOHO's launching. It was the first Kreutz sungrazer discovered from the Earth' surface in over 40 years. Predicted to reach the brightness of Venus or brighter (about magnitude -5 to -6), most everyone agreed it would never survive it's close approach to the sun and come out the other side, but sometimes the experts are wrong!
As it swung past the sun (on my birthday!) the tail inexplicably was swept away, but the comet survived and the tail redeveloped. The "experts" are now saying the comet is larger than the 200 yards diameter they estimated, or it would have vaporized. It now lives to return in another few hundred years. Some of the other spacecraft observed other aspects of it's pass, such as the Stereo (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) and SDO (Solar Dynamics Observatory). A really good synopsis of observations and early analysis is located at a Sungrazing Comets Site.
As for future ground-based observations - it might be seen from the southern hemisphere as it moves south and fades, but our friend Andrew Cooper, observing from his workplace on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, was one of the rare observers to have recorded it near perihelion. Yes, SOHO sees a new comet every 3 days or less (!) but there are still some surprises out there yet for us to find. And being able to surprise the experts is a thrill too!
While we have safely returned to Tucson, we need to update progress on our 80-year-old cottage out in the woods of Illinois. This last summer we had a new roof put on, and then we insulated, rewired and reglazed windows of the guest bedroom. In September we finished the drywall and wainscoting. Sister Maj, who takes joy in working on our little nest while we're away (it is like having home-improvement elves working on it while we're gone) finished the beadboard ceiling and had started priming in the intervening period. So our December trip was to finish out the painting of the guest room. The photo at left shows our starting point upon our arrival, on the right is our lil' construction elf Maj!
But the complication, going back to July, was what color to paint the room? I had no strong feelings, though they started out with a pretty strong red color that I thought was too close to the master bedroom. So we left with ideas, but no decisions. We were thinking that as soon as we even leaned towards a color, Maj would just go ahead and start painting. Melinda wanted the ultimate decision and especially with her cataract surgery this Fall and subsequent clearer vision put off the choice.
So the first order of business this trip was to pick out a color and guess what - it was the color of her old "shell pink" painting sweatshirt! Shown at the photo at left, I think that match was a happy accident. They were concerned I would think it was "too girlie", but again, I didn't have strong opinions other than make it at least a little different from the master bedroom.
So after a few days of effort, the final color scheme is in place. Beside the pink drywall, the wainscoting is "soft white" (really a pale butter yellow), the trim between them and the window trim an "eggshell white", and the beadboard ceiling is a bright true white. Whew - lots of color coordinating, but everyone is happy! The room looks great already and the windows (which I stripped and reglazed in July) look spectacular - matching the view of the Fox River outside.
The next task at hand for the "construction elf" is staining and finishing the new wood flooring. Maj is incredible working on the little details, and excels at this. If we're lucky, we'll be able to help install flooring our next trip, rather than just move furniture into the finished room. About all that remains is finishing out the kitchen ceiling - just in time to move to outdoor projects for the spring and summer visits!
We had a sister with a hip replacement, and a brother-in-law with major back surgery, so we used our normal Sunday trip to Iowa to visit recovering family! All are doing extremely well, are up and around and apparently following doctor's orders. At my middle-sister's house, we got to spend some time with my great niece Alivia, who turned 5 a few months back. Seemingly like all of my nieces and nephews, turn a camera on them and it is time to perform! Even great-uncle Dean got in on the face-making act...
Well, I missed the Fall colors - our September visit was early, and we're definitely way late for them in December... I think Melinda caught some good color with her surprise visit for her sister's birthday last month. But today's walk shows winter is here if not just around the corner. No snow yet, and people on the plane were eager to tell us their garden hadn't had a killing frost yet(!), but from the greys and tans, it is dreary cold for the next 4 months!
Which brings me to the sign I saw on my walk, shown at left. Seems a harsh set of choices, without much middle ground... Reminds me of the advice my money manager gives every review - "well, we expect to get worse, then turn around and get better" - doesn't take a genius to see that in everyday life, but there it is. It just seems the better days are taking their time arriving! I'm rather glad to have the moderate temps of Tucson to spend the Winter months - the cold and short days would drive me to depression. Yet some thrive in the cold, snow and dressing in layers (Melinda included).
But for now, it is still above freezing (low 40s for highs today), the trail along the Fox River is fun to walk with the rustling of leaves underfoot, and minute spots of color still exist for the moment. Enjoy it while you can!
It's time once again to not look at the calendar, and head up to "Ketelsen East" in the outskirts of Chicago to visit friends and family! Yes, we know it can be cold and miserable, with a real chance of getting snowed in this time of year, but we get back almost every 2 months for the better part of a week, regardless of time-of-year. Besides the afore-mentioned F&F, we're also working on the house up here, and there is work to be done! And what better time for working on painting and indoor projects than December!?
It was an uneventful flight out (uneventful is good!), and I figured our seats (row 22 - right over the wings) wouldn't lead to any pictures of interest, so the camera bag was safely stowed under the seat in front of me. But as fate would have it, as we descended into Chicago, an interesting shot or two exposed themselves (excuse the pun!). So I grabbed the camera (a difficult task with the lack of legroom these days and my knees wedged against the seat back in front of me) and risked the ire of the cabin crew by turning on my electronic device during approach to grab a few frames. Of course, the first one I caught, while banking over one of the brighter parts of the city, the exposure was set way too long (1.3 seconds), yet yielded a way-interesting shot, even better than the subsequent one (0.1 second) that is much more boring...
Now many of you likely say "what pretty lights!" But the amateur astronomers among you are likely aghast at the light pollution! Since we are flying over the lights, if they were even moderately shielded to reduce glare, we should only see the diffuse light on the ground, not the lights directly. I'll endeavor to take some of Tucson that show that effect sometime. Here in Chicago, I think they are proud of all the "pretty lights" that add to the skyline. Of course, if you try to do astronomy here, the sky glow from the urban area can be seen hundreds of miles away. But that is one of the reasons we spend most of our time in Tucson, for that inky sky relatively easily obtained with a short drive.
Tonight I was scheduled to direct a Kitt Peak Advanced Observing Program (AOP), but the guest was a no-show. While waiting for him to arrive, I took a few opportunistic photos while hanging around the Visitor Center. The early sunset happens to fall over Tucson and I noticed last week in a visit that many roadside signs that use glass microspheres (to appear brighter under headlight illumination) appear brilliantly lit when exactly opposite the sun. The first image shows the mountain shadow creeping over Ryan Airfield on the way to Tucson. All the reflectors, as well as roadside traffic signs are redirecting sunlight back to me. It is a really cool effect, and visible to the naked eye, even from a distance of 25 miles.
It was quite a clear day and though breezy on the Mountain, transparency was very good. For a few trips I've been wanting to image the shadow of the Mountain ascend into the sky as the sun goes down. The effect is quite well known, but few people have observed it - mostly because most people are watching the sunset on the other side of the sky! The sky has to be very clear, and I've seen better, but it showed up nicely. Mostly the shadow appears pointy, but tonight, being near the VC right in the center of the mountain, the shadow appeared flat-topped or slightly rounded. I'm thinking about chasing down the upcoming partial lunar eclipse setting at the tip of the mountain shadow in a couple weeks...
With the new moon occurring a day or two ago, I saw that the thin sliver of the moon was to be very near brilliant Venus after the sunset. Of course, being up at the Observatory, it was easy to place a telescope or two in the foreground. Shown here in the wide field are the WIYN 0.9 meter, the NOP 0.4 meter and the WIYN 3.5 meter telescope structures. And the closeup shows just the WIYN 3.5 meter next to the celestial alignment. Venus' stellar flares are caused by diffraction from the lens' iris edges. Of course, the skinny moon's "dark" side is lit up by Earthshine, since viewed from the nearly-new moon, the brilliant full Earth lights it up.
Lastly, shortly before giving up the wait for the guest, I had set up an ultra-wide 8mm fisheye lens to image the Milky Way/Zodiacal Band confluence. It seems lately that the band has been brighter than I remember - it seems more easily visible across the entire sky. The Zodiacal Light (the fainter band angled towards upper left in this image) is caused by dust in the plane of the solar system, and in this image reaches from Sagittarius, where the ecliptic crosses the Milky Way, up to the planet Jupiter, just appearing in the upper left corner of the field. In another month or two, as the ecliptic makes a sharper angle with the horizon, the Zodiacal Light should get brighter - even brighter than the remnants of the Summer Milky Way that is visible here.
So even though I had hoped to be up observing all night, I was home by 9:30, but still got to see a few amazing things!
Last Thanksgiving I happened to be channel surfing and fortuitously ran across some of the most compelling TV ever! Punkin Chunkin! Take your average home garage shop engineer, task him with hurling a big gourd and give him liberal amounts of time you come up with some of the most outlandish mechanical devices ever seen, including medieval trebuchets and giant air cannons, like those shown at left.
The last few years the World Championship, held in Delaware the first weekend in November has been broadcast Thanksgiving evening on the Discovery and Science Channels. Last year's show, "hosted" by Adam and Jamie of the Mythbuster series on the Discovery Channel, was a hoot. The overall winner was a female team - Hormone Blaster, their air cannon reaching 3760 feet! The Guinness Record is currently held by "Big 10 Inch" with a distance of 5545 feet in the thin air of Moab, Utah - yes, over a mile! This year the show is hosted by the Mythbuster "kids" - Kari, Grant and Tory (Youtube promo shown here). Tune in Thursday night (9pm in Tucson, rebroadcast at Midnight and again Saturday the 26th) and prepare to be amazed!
This morning as I walked into our integration lab, I was reminded of the warehouse scene of "Raiders of the Lost Arc" - the floor was covered with boxes about as far as I could see! I counted about 70-some pallets of 24 boxes each. And what could consume so much floor space in our lab? GLASS!
It is time once again to cast a mirror, and that calls for sorting through more than 20 tons of Ohara E-6 borosilicate glass (a Pyrex equivalent). The sorting process takes a few days, and commences right after the Thanksgiving break, so they've moved in glass, sorting tables, light boxes and tools to put together their assembly-line process to inspect every chunk of what will become the next mirror substrate - the next Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) mirror. Each box holds about 10-12 kg of glass, and each block will be cleaned and inspected for flaws and impurities (most of these show up as stress concentrations under cross Polaroids), and sorted for where it should be placed in the mold. The best glass is kept for placing in the mold last, so it will remain on the faceplate of the cast mirror.
While I've never been called to assist with the sorting process, it is fun to watch the crew working together in the assembly-line process. After the glass inspection, they will also inspect the mold, which has just been through a pre-fire process the last week. The glass will be loaded into the mold just before the Christmas shutdown, and the casting will start in January. The process of transforming raw chunks to finished optics continue!
Our orange tabby Marley died this morning. While it was not a sudden passing, he declined pretty quickly. We first noticed he had lost considerable weight only a week ago, but for a week or two previously seemed lethargic without much appetite. We got him into the vet quickly last Tuesday, and they kept him for a few days for some X-rays, blood tests and IV fluids. We got him back Friday and saw he had continued his slide - he could hardly stand and we were syringe feeding him to try to get some food in him. Another quick trip to the vet on Saturday before they were unavailable for the weekend brought a slight change in meds, including some for pain. Mostly he sat near us through the day. Melinda had a bit of a cold and sore throat, so stayed home from work and stayed up with him Saturday night, waking me at 5am to tell me he had stopped breathing and had died quietly. The cause remains undiagnosed...
Marley came to us as a kitten in the summer of 2001 - Vicki, who was volunteering for some local animal rescue groups rescued him from his foster home. Evidently there was a flea infestation and this little kitten had gotten ODed on flea powder and could hardly stand. Fortunately he recovered without any problems, and grew into the greatest cat. He was quite trusting in us and waited patiently for his lap time - 3 or 4 of our cats rotate through their turns with mom and dad nearly every night and he always enjoyed his owners' attention. At bedtime he rushed to be in place on my side of the bed as we drifted off to sleep together, always managing to leave wet spots on me or my blankets from his happy drooling. But despite wanting to spend time with us, he also spent a lot of time with Lance, who entered our household about the same time. Lance was very shy and set up residence in our garage and seemed happy alone, but on most nights Marley stayed by his side - his only friend among all the cats. We didn't see any change in Marley's behavior after Lance's passing this Spring, though he continued to eat at the spot he shared with him for years...
The pictures above are taken in 2008 when Marley accompanied me on my cross-country drive to Illinois and our 5 month stay there while Melinda and I married. He was an OK traveler, but a most excellent cat when it came to personality and his desire to spend time with his humans. He will be missed...
An Iridium Flare! Tonight we had an excellent appearance that was magnitude -7, which makes it about as bright as the quarter moon! This one appeared in our southern sky - the bright star near the bottom is Fomalhaut, the brightest star in Piscis Austrinus (Southern Fish). It is a 30 second exposure with a 50mm lens at F/4.5. I've mentioned the flares before, but perhaps never fully explained them, so it is about time to remedy that.
The Iridium satellite constellation is a set of 66 satellites that provide world-wide handheld phone communications. Originally there were to be 77, matching the atomic number of the element iridium, thus the name. A peculiarity of the satellite is that there are 3 flat polished antennae, and with it's orientation fixed in space, these antennae can predictably reflect sunlight down onto the night-side of the earth. These flares can be as bright as magnitude -9, possible to see even in daytime, and can be spectacular at night. The flatness accuracy of the panels is such that the projected sunbeam is only a few miles in diameter. In addition, there are websites, such as Heavens-Above, that will predict when these flares will pass over your position on the earth. It can be quite amazing watching even from urban areas a dim satellite appearing and growing brighter by thousands of times to brilliance, then fading slowly again to invisibility, all in a few seconds. The flares are quite popular at the Grand Canyon Star Party, where the public treats us as shamans for our ability to predict their passing.
The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada has a nice website explaining the geometry and effects of the flares, including detailed instructions to logging into heavens-Above to be able to predict these far in advance, including appearances of the International Space Station and, in fact, any satellite currently in orbit! They are the source of the illustration at left showing the effect of the antenna reflection.
Observing the flares is a lot of fun, and so easy to do with the assistance of Heavens-Above. In addition to predicting Iridiums and the ISS, they can plot out the path of the satellite as it goes across the constellations. They also plot out the positions of any bright comets or asteroids that are visible, and you can plot out a whole-sky map for any time or date you desire. With those tools and a few satellite observations under your belt, you are on your way to learning your way around the sky.
The evening observing window to spot Venus and Mercury has been very brief, thanks to the low angle of the ecliptic to the horizon this time of year. A couple weeks ago I posted about the evening conjunction of the 2 planets inward of the Earth. Forgetful me, I often don't remember to look until the pair sink too low to spot the fainter Mercury. The innermost planet also reached greatest eastern elongation (furthest from the sun in the evening sky) yesterday, so in the next days will get fainter (as it becomes a smaller crescent passing between us and the sun - visible in telescopes only) and as it dives towards inferior conjunction (between us and the sun) 2 weeks from Sunday (4 December). But in the meantime, in the next day or so, you can still spot it in the evening sky, as I did tonight, below brilliant Venus - taken with Canon XSi and 17-85 zoom set to 85mm for 1/5 second. Catch it while you can!
Día de Muertos, or Day of the Dead, is not something familiar to much of the United States. However, in states bordering Mexico (or states with large Latino populations) it is a practiced holiday - one that is planned for, anticipated, and relished. Being in Tucson (formerly Mexico), Día de Muertos is an event to behold!
Wikipedia says: "Day of the Dead(Spanish:Día de Muertos) is aMexicanholiday celebrated throughout Mexico and around the world in many cultures. The holiday focuses on gatherings of family and friends to pray for and remember friends and family members who have died. It is particularly celebrated in Mexico, where it attains the quality of a National Holiday, and all banks are closed. The celebration takes place on November 1–2, in connection with theCatholicholidays ofAll Saints' Day(November 1) andAll Souls' Day(November 2). Traditions connected with the holiday include building private altars honoring the deceased usingsugar skulls,marigolds, and the favorite foods and beverages of the departed and visiting graves with these as gifts.
Scholars trace the origins of the modern Mexican holiday to indigenous observances dating back hundreds of years (thousands of years) and to an Aztecfestival dedicated to a goddess called Mictecacihuatl. The holiday has spread throughout the world: In Brazil, Dia de Finados is a public holiday that many Brazilians celebrate by visiting cemeteries and churches. In Spain, there are festivals and parades, and, at the end of the day, people gather at cemeteries and pray for their dead loved ones. Similar observances occur elsewhere in Europe, and similarly themed celebrations appear in many Asian and African cultures."
We had never been to the Day of the Dead parade, on 4th Street, in Tucson. In all of his years here, Dean had never checked it out, and when first moving here I was at first 'put off' and frightened by the Day of the Dead artwork, sculptures, and paraphernalia found in the shops here. My appreciation has changed, however, and now I'm drawn to those articles - we even have a Day of the Dead tin wall sculpture in our kitchen (purchased in Loreto, Baja Sur last March), and I have just been given a Day of the Dead Kitty tile by our friends Jen and Tom (from Phoenix)! It seemed like we would miss the embodiment of this holiday if we didn't go to the parade this year. In Tucson, this has become a largely gringo event that nearly resembles a form of Mardi Gras. That was what it reminded me of anyway. For some it was an excuse to get dressed up, paint their faces, and parade through the streets with like minded individuals. For most, however, it was as it is supposed to be. A day to remember their loved ones, a day to remember all souls who have passed. The parade ended at a park in Tucson, befitted with an altar and a large cauldron of fire where papers with messages to our loved ones (which we were given papers to write messages along the parade route) were burned so that the messages were raised to the spirits of the ones we love, remember, and miss. Remembering those who have passed isn't limited to people, there were people with pictures of their pets as well as a group that our friend Chuck walked with, remembering (and making people aware of) the number of gray wolves hit and killed by vehicles each year! It was heartwarming to see people walking, holding up pictures of their grandparents, their ancestors; and gut wrenching to see pictures of children, teens, young adults - lost to accident, disease, violence. Every soul deserves someone to remember them - we all have loved ones we remember. This was not a sad event, but an event to remember them with the respect and love that they deserve. The tail of the parade was brought up by the University of Arizona marching band (or a portion of it, anyway) - all with their faces painted for the Day of the Dead. If you live in the Tucson area and haven't been a part of this before, then come out and see it next year (the first Sunday of November). Dean was a little unsure of this event before we went, but afterwards he suggested that maybe we'd like to walk in it next year! So whether the participants are gringos, or Latinos, it doesn't matter; we are connected by the love we have for those who have passed, by Día de Muertos.
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Credit where credit is due...
All photos are by Dean and Melinda Ketelsen - even the really cool astrophotography ones. Granted, some pics have come from the Internet...such as pictures of actors, or of Miss Tohono O'odham, etc. However, the astronomy pics, as well as the bird pics are all original - compliments of Dean, and sometimes Melinda too! Layout, editing, and continual tweaking (I think they call that "desk top publishing"), well, that would be the work of "I know I can make this better" Melinda!